Developed laboratory facilities for using data obtained through remote sensing at CAET,Bhubaneswar. Five Computer Workstations, Table Digitizer, Color Scanner, Global Positioning System (GPS), Integrated Land and Water Information System (ILWIS), Image processing software ERDAS IMAGIN and GPS software ARCPAD were installed and operated for importing digital data from satellite, geo-referencing, Geo-coding and image classification. Software was also procured for working on GIS platform.
Geographical Information System (GIS) provides a good platform where these inputs can be stored, analyzed, viewed, edited and updated. The output may be obtained in form of Spatial maps which are further used for planning at village, block, tahsil, district, state and national level.
Prepared Land and Water Resources action plan for Jagatpur Branch Canal Command, Mundali Irrigation Project (Mundali Irrigation project), The study was undertaken with the aim to apply the techniques of Remote Sensing & Geographical Information System in generating thematic maps, assessment and monitoring of agricultural drought and irrigation management in order to improve the water use efficiency.
The information generated on the thematic maps is utilized for selection of sites for water harvesting structures to increase ground water recharge and for evaluation of crops in command areas a well as to quantify surface storage. Beyond this RS and GIS techniques were also used for field level planning at university farm.
Accuracy of RS and GIS based maps ranges from 80 to 90 percent, which can further be increased through more ground information on Ground Water Monitoring, Networking for Roads, canals, Electricity, Water Supply, Education and health services. It is also helpful in establishing marketing and storage networks of the different products as per requirements. The information so derived is available on a single click, it can be viewed, modified and updated on desire at any time without much time delay. This is also true that not necessarily every farmer should understand the GIS and RS basics. There shall be terminals to be used as friendly points like rail reservation counter's and one can use them for his target or goals.
The necessary technical man power was also developed. Trained about 50 B.Tech. students for working in RS and GIS environment. Water resources Planning, Land Use Classification, Crop Classification, Command Area Evaluation Reservoir balancing and Zoning of Ground Water Potentials are some of the aspects on which six undergraduate research projects have been completed. The studies also resulted in awarding M.Tech. degree to five students in Soil and Water Engineering Department. Prepared Water resources action plan, Draught management plan and site suitability maps for water harvesting Structure for ground water recharge in about 86000 ha of Bargarh and Sonepur district. These maps are useful in selecting sites for water harvesting structures to increase ground water recharge. They are helpful in fixing priorities to implement plan of action considering the scarcity of the resources and need of the area.
All this work was under taken through a project on RS and GIS approach of water resources utilization worth Rs. 57.89 lakh Competitive Grant Project from ICAR under NATP. Training in RS and GIS application for three months under NNRMS course at IIRS Dehradun, was very useful in framing the project, getting it sanctioned and in successful completion of the project in the three years duration.
The studies resulted in to Six Research Papers published and five Research Papers Presented in various National and International Meets of Scientists. One of the paper has also fetched "The best paper award" during International Seminar.
The facility is continuously being updated and used for research work in Ground Water Utlization project and for creating human resources development. Further, the department of Water Resources of the State government has also granted a project worth 300 lakhs under Odisha Water Sector Restructuring Project for preparing Agricultural Thematic Maps of Mahanadi and Brahmani Basins using available ground information along with satellite data available through NRSA.
Field studies were carried out at about 160 locations of two districts Kalahandi & Nabrangpur during last ten years. Energy used, operating conditions, output delivered, quality of pumps, installation &maintenance of pumping units were observed, recorded and analysed in light of efficiency of energy utilization.
It has been found that 62 percent pumps are operating at an average efficiency lower than 30 percent the. Reasons are poor maintenance, excessive Suction head, poor foundation and improper selection of pump unit in few of the cases. The results are indicative of wastage of electricity in pumping units.
Cause finding analysis and improvement thereby has shown the way to improve the performance of pumps by 5to 14 percent. This saves 77 to 2688 units of electricity per year per pump. Proper selection of pump as per crop, water source, along with head of operation needed is the key for smooth operation of irrigation through pumps. Both technical as well as social aspects were touched for correcting the pump selection by farmers.
Excessive Suction lift has been the cause of poor efficiency in 53 percent cases. The problem was studied in depth. A pump testing rig was also constructed at laboratory of CAET for detailed studies on effect of higher lift on suction side and possible improvements.
Providing two stage plate form and reducing the distance between pump and water vertically has been found to increase pump efficiency by 7% to 14%.
Poor foundation has been found in 84 percent cases. Firm foundation and fixing of pumps properly on plate form with nuts and bolts has been demonstrated at about 30 locations. The efficiency can be improved by 8 to 10 percent just by keeping firm foundation. Cleaning the strainer and maintaining good operating condition was lacking in89 percent of pumps surveyed, a very simple cleaning and oiling of the pump could increase efficiency up to 14 percent.
Looking to very large population of the pumps touching 11.5 lakh in the year 20012-13, consuming 40 percent energy used in agriculture Sector, even one percent saving of electricity can save a quantum of precious electric power in the state.
Guide lines were issued in form of leaf lets for pump selection, installation, operating and maintenance and distributed to about 10,000 farmers at various occasions. "Sechana Marga darshika" is also published to save not only energy but also to save and use water resource which is becoming scanty day by day.
The information of this survey was compiled in form of a bulletin and circulated. As a response of the studies and requirement of the circumstances the Odisha Electricity Board has offered a project on determination of Load factor and its variation with respect to cropping seasons for Cuttuck and Bargarh Division. The project is aimed at reducing power losses and power wastage in irrigation pumps. The project framed at load factor analysis as well as its iteration with irrigation water requirement and pump operation efficiencies. The project with a proposed budget of 74.4.lakh is in the pipe line in the University.
Studies were carried out to maintain sustainability in ground water utilization in future. The study addresses both the aspects, first is raising water table in canal commands and the second one is the depleting water table trends in well irrigated area.CANAL COMMAND AREA: RISING WATER TABLE TREND
Detailed water balance study has been conducted in command area of Mundali Irrigation project. Premonsoon & Post monsoon Water table observation were collected from 186 open wells, spreads over 1.57 lakh hectare command area situated in Cuttack and Jagatsinghpur district. Data was systematized and analysed for trends of water table for last 17 years. Shallow water table (with depth to water level less than 2 m from ground surface) areas were found at two places, Kothala & Parikiar village on Cuttuck-Jagatsinghpur road. Detailed computation was made at Parikiar site in 215 hectare command of Phiringi minor having 41 observation wells.
Detailed investigations were carried out for characterizing soil, water, crop and canal water resources. It was found that canal water and well water should be used in 60:40 ratios to maintain the dynamic equilibrium of the ground water reservoir. Ground water model with simple water budgeting predicted that existing wells in the command should be made operative.
Water table studies shown that water table was rising in canal irrigated area and depleting in well irrigated area. Increased well irrigation in canal command could control the situation of disturbance in dynamic equilibrium. Discritization of the entire command into geologically & topographically similar units and water computation in each unit was carried unit for nearly six years. This also extend the same finding of utilization of well water in canal command area for attaining dynamic equilibrium.
Conjunctive use of surface and ground water is really useful in managing canal command areas to prevent water logging in low lying areas and to distribute water equally in entire command. Efforts were made to execute and demonstrate the results of the finding in command of Phiringi minor a part of Taratua Irrigation command area. The results were positive. The well irrigated area could not feel depletion and it compensated the effect of excessive percolation from seepage from canals and field application. The information was compiled in form of a bulletin and circulated to the department of Water Resources and Agriculture for its further implementation.Non canal command area: Fast Water Depletion
Ground water recharge prospects were evaluated in water table depletion area. Rain water collection and giving it proper opportunity for recharging aquifer has been found the only solution in such areas. A percolation tank was constructed in the campus of CAET. Experimental studies on this tank shown the necessity of putting large areas under tanks for desired recharge. The site suitable for such tanks is rarely available. Similar results were obtained while studying water spread area, affectivity and efficiency of the percolation tanks constructed by Department of Agriculture at Khurdha and Bargarh. It was estimated through field data of well irrigated areas that 16171 cubic meter of volume of water was percolated in to soil. Out of which only 24 percent could be retained and rest of it 76 percent either flows as subsurface flows or contributed to soil moisture in the root zone. The work has been presented and appreciated at the National and the International forum.
Traditional Haveli system of cultivation was also evaluated and found prospective for ground water recharge to a larger extent. Water is stored in Haveli fields for rainy season and allowed percolation in the field it self. Remaining water is let out after rainy season and residual moisture is utilized for Rabi cultivation. Satellite data with IRS-ID PAN Sensor was used to identity the Haveli areas in Raikia block near Jagatsinghpur. It was found that 73,424 ha were under Haveli during year 2002-03. Which is 11percent of total area under the study. An estimated spread of Haveli in Jagatsinghpur district was 1,91,778 ha in the year 1986-87 and in Khordha district was it was 2,78,624ha . The area was reduced to 1,38,422 ha respectively in the year 99-00. It has been found in the measurement in three consecutive years that each Haveli field contribute 4 to 6 mm per day for 90-100day in the rainy season. This results into 40 to 60 cm percolation from the entire Haveli track which is mainly responsible for rich ground water reservoir. The area has been decreasing year by year which is cause of worry for the ground water reservoir.
Rejuvenation of Haveli fields was strongly advocated at local, regional, and state level platforms. As a need of time and traditionally tested solution the government of Odisha has started making Khet Talab similar to Haveli in each of the block and districts. The state has already covered about 2000 ha under this scheme and spent about Rs. 2 00 lakh during last rainy season 2005-06. Jal Roko Abhiyan, Roof Water Harvesting and Varsha Jal Sanrakhan Abhiyan are the timely activities in right direction.There are plans to undertake this work on larger basis next year. This conservation and recharge of ground water shall be fruitful to make these resources sustainable.
The research work in this deptt. is concentrated on theme areas like rain water management systems, in situ rain water conservation, analysis of climatologically data, runoff and soil loss estimations, controlling losses in farm pond, soil moisture modeling drought characterization etc.The salient contributions of the department are as below
Participation in the Farmer Training and Farmers Meet organized by the University in the month October every year at Khurdha. Participation in Exhibitions organized by the University at different places in Odisha during December end every year.
In the scheme entitled "Scaling up of water productivity in agriculture for livelihood through teaching cum demonstration, Training of Trainers and Farmers" which was implemented during April, 7 2007 to March, 31 2012, 71 farmers training and 12 trainers trainings were conducted in all the districts of Vidarbha region. During these trainings in all 3592 farmers from different districts of Odisha region and 287 trainers from State Agriculture Department were trained regarding how to scale up water productivity in agriculture.